My ebook “Enterprise Scrum Transitions” (with Stefan Roock), based on our well received session at the Barcelona Scrum Gathering, is available here:
It’s a free download and available in mobi, epub and pdf formats so all leading readers are supported.
Cartoon Story Board (also called Comic Story Board) is one of my favourite creativity techniques and it can be used to good effect in retrospectives. I have used it in the “setting the stage” phase of retrospectives to help a team to frame the key question to be tackled during the retrospective, and for helping to generate ideas when deciding what to do differently in the future.
It is useful in the following contexts:
Teams in conflict, retrospectives, futurespectives, problem reframing during the “problem definition” phase of Buffalo style Creative Problem Solving (CPS).
The procedure that I use is:
- The facilitator draws the grid and lays out the paper on a table at which the participants are sitting.
- The participants draw a representation of the current situation in the first cell.
- The participants draw a representation of an ideal state in the last cell.
- The participants imagine that they are looking back from a future time represented by cell 6 and draw a representation of the first step that was taken to make things better in cell 2.
- The participants draw a representation of how it was just before they reached the cell 6 time in cell 5.
- The participants fill in cells 3 and 4.
From here it is usually a short step to problem/question reframing (ask the participants “what is the key problem that we have identified here?”). Alternatively or in addition, the technique can be followed by braining storming, clustering and dot voting to generate ideas for action.
As Scrum practitioners, we are used to short and sharp retrospectives at the end of each Sprint. Sprint retrospectives, taking 1-2 hours, can yield valuable results, enabling the Scrum team to improve its process. Typically these retrospectives yield lots of ideas, which are then prioritised and only the top 2-3 are actually actioned.
I If we only hold short retrospectives, we may be missing out on discovering further ways to optimise our work. A longer retrospective, at the end of a release or other milestone, enables problems and solutions to be explored in more detail.
I was asked to facilitate a 2-day retrospective for a client who had started to use Scrum some 5 months beforehand. They had just released the first major version of their product since the introduction of Scrum and wished to bring all 6 Scrum teams together for a retrospective.
Grabbing my well-worn copy of Esther Derby’s and Diana Larsen’s “Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great”, I started to plan the retrospective. For this longer-than-normal retrospective, I also found Norman Kerth’s “Project Retrospectives” helpful when selecting the activities and for general advice. I also had the opportunity to discuss the retrospective with the renowned agile coach, Rachel Davies whilst I was planning it – thanks Rachel for your support and advice.
I decided to structure the retrospective using Esther and Diana’s 5-phase model, using the following techniques:
- Set the stage
- Prime directive
- Art gallery
- Gather data
- Generate insights
- Dot voting
- Decide what to do
- Open space
- SMART actions
- Give appreciation/ball of wool
The retrospective was further structured in terms of past (first day) and future (second day). I drew my interpretation of Rachel’s retrospective bridge (from Rachel’s book “Agile Coaching”) to help the teams to understand this relationship.
Day 1 – Past
During the first day, we focussed on identifying the events and experiences from the past several months of work on the project (around 5 months for this retrospective).
Phase – Set the stage
Technique – Prime Directive
I started by welcoming the participants and read the retrospective prime directive to them:
Regardless of what we discover, we understand and truly believe that everyone did the best job they could, given what they knew at the time, their skills and abilities, the resources available, and the situation at hand.
I asked them to try to apply the folllowing rules:
- To try to not interrupt others
- To try to accept the opinions of others without judgement
- To talk from one’s own perspective, and not to talk for others
- To avoid jokes at the expense of others
I then explained the overall agenda (today past, tomorrow future), the 5 phase model and the activities that I had chosen for the 5 phases. I asked the participants to organize themselves into teams and gave them two choices: affinity teams based on their speciality (e.g. testers, managers, product owners, developers etc.), or Scrum teams. They chose to organize on the basis of affinity.
Technique – Art Gallery
For an opening activity, I chose Art Gallery:
The teams were given a single sheet of flip-paper and pens (a selection of colours). They were asked to draw a picture that represents “how was it to work on the project during this release”. Each team should produce a single picture, but without talking to oneanother. Forbidding the use of verbal communication, forces the participants into a more right-brain cognitive style which can produce a picture that comes from intuition rather than rational thinking. In can be helpful in unlocking the creative potential of some.
The teams were given 30 minutes for this activity. At the end of the drawing phase, each team was given another 5 minutes to discuss the result and find a title for it. Finally, each team had 5 minutes to present their picture to all of the participants and the pictures were taped to the wall to form the “art gallery”.
Phase – Gather Data
Technique – Timeline
I choose “timeline” as the main techinique for gathering data about the release. This was prepared by covering a wall in white paper roll. A timescale was marked on the paper by dividing it horizontally into month segments. I created a horizontal stripe over the entire length of the timeline by drawing two horizonal lines in the bottom half of the timeline – for later use a seismograph indication of how people were feeling during the release.
I asked the teams to use yellow post-its to record events and other facts relating to the release. They were given 10 minutes for this and were asked to stick their post-its to the timeline, at a point which represents the time at which the event took place. After inviting the teams to visit the timeline and read what others had recorded, I invited them to use green post-its to record things that had worked well during the release – again they were asked to complete this in 10 minutes and stick the results to the timeline.
The teams were then asked to record:
- Things that had not worked well / problems, using red post-its.
- Things that puzzle them / potentially interesting themes where they desire more information, using blue post-its.
10 minutes was allowed for each phase and after completing their post-its, the participants were asked to stick their results to the timeline.
Technique – Seismograph
At the top left of the blank strip, I drew a happy face. At the bottom left I drew a sad face. I then asked each participant to draw a line which represented their satisfaction with the project at each point during the release, using the events on the timeline as a reminder.
Phase – Generate Insights
Technique – Clustering
With the help of the participants, and an agile coach, we clustered the post-its around common themes and named them. Each cluster contained typically a mixture of green, red and blue post-its, reflecting the different opinions of the participants. We clustered the hundreds of post-it around 9 named clusters.
Technique – Dot voting
I gave each participant 3 sticky dots and asked them to assign their “votes” to the clusters according to the importance of the cluster to them.
At the end of day 1 we had 9 clusters, prioritised by dot voting. These were taken forward to the “future” part of the retrospective, where the participants would decide how to optimise their teamwork.
Day 2 – Future
Phase – Decide what to do
Techniques – Open Space, SMART actions
Open space technology was used to discuss the themes (by now represented by clusters) discovered during day 1 and generate plans for addressing the issues.
First I explained the idea of open space and described the principles and rules. The participants built a market place of sessions (based on the clusters discovered during the previous day). I asked session leaders to make sure that the results were documented on flip-charts and asked the groups to try to create SMART actions as a result from each session (Simple, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely).
At the end of each of the morning and afternoon sessions, the participants presented the results to all of the other participants.
Phase – Close
Technique – Give appreciation
We closed the retrospective by forming a large circle. Holding the free end of a giant ball of wool in one hand, a starting person thanked another person and threw the ball of wool to that person. This was repeated until everyone had had received at least one appreciation. We then lay the resulting spider’s-web of wool on the floor and noted how strongly the teams were networked.
We enjoyed preparing and giving this talk very much. Thanks very much to the people who attended and for the interesting questions and discussion, all of which contributed to the talk’s success.
It’s the first time that I have made a presentation using Prezi (http://prezi.com). Prezi allows the presenter to zoom around a large canvas and get away from the intrinsically serial nature of traditional presentation tools. It suits my style and was well received by all that I showed the results to (I’ve heard of some feeling symptoms akin to motion sickness as a result of the zooming and rotation). I’ll be continuing this experiment with my next presentation at Agile Central Europe in Krakow Poland on 8-9th April.
Many thanks also to those who mentioned our talk in their post-gathering round-ups. Here:
An article, co-written by ScrumCenter founders Christoph Mathis and Simon Roberts, describing the Scrum transition at Allianz Deutschland AG, is now available for free download thanks to an agreement with SIGS-DATACOM GmbH.
The article, co-written by Gerhard Hastreiter (Allianz Deutschland AG), Chistoph Mathis (ScrumCenter GmbH) and Simon Roberts (ScrumCenter GmbH), first appeared in the January 2009 edition of ObjektSpektrum and can be found here.
There are many techniques that can be applied during Scrum retrospectives. The excellent book “Agile Retrospectives” by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen has several suggestions. As a Scrum coach I try to keep retrospectives fresh and interesting by using different techniques and I regularly dip into this book for inspiration.
One of the simplest retrospective approaches is to get the team to make three lists:
- Continue – what has worked well and should be continued
- Stop – what has not worked well or has hindered us and should be stopped
- Start – what things have we not been doing which we should start to do
With the support of a facilitator, the team can produce the three lists on three separate flip-chart sheets. However, sometimes the team dynamics makes this difficult, for example if one or more of the team members are very dominant so that other team members are effectively excluded. Brain-writing is one way to help all team members to contribute.
In this article I describe how brain-writing can be applied as part of a Scrum retrospective.
Brain-writing proceeds as follows:
- Each participant is given a sheet of paper containing a table with three columns “Continue”, “Stop” and “Start” (attached as Powerpoint in English and German).
- Each team member spends up to 5 minutes writing entries in each column.
- The sheets are then passed to another participant (e.g. to the left).
- Each participant reads what has already been written and may then write additional ideas if inspired to do so (5 minute time-box).
- This continues for at least one round – i.e. until the sheets are back at their starting points.
Once ideas have been generated using brain-writing, the retrospective can continue as follows:
- Consolidate the lists – producing three lists (“Continue, “Stop” and “Start”) on a whiteboard or flip-chart.
- Prioritise the list items by voting with coloured stickers or marker pen “dots” – each participant gets three votes per column.
- From the highest priority items (e.g. the top three items), generate a list of SMART (simple, measureable, achievable, realistic, time-boxed) actions.
- Consider creating Product and/or Sprint backlog items from the actions.